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Tourism in Egypt
Tourism is one of the leading sources of income, crucial to Egypt's economy.
At its peak in 2010 the sector employed about 12% of Egypt's workforce serving approximately 14.7 million visitors Egypt,
and providing revenues of nearly $12.5 billion.
as well as contributing more than 11% of GDP and 14.4% of foreign currency revenues.

History
The number of tourists in Egypt stood at 0.1 million in 1951. Tourism as an important sector of the economy picked up pace from 1975 onwards,
as Egypt eases visa restrictions for almost all European and North American countries and established embassies in new countries like Austria,
Netherlands, Denmark and Finland. In 1976, tourism was a focal point of the Five Year Plan of the Government,
where 12% of the budget was allocated to upgrading state-owned hotels, establishing a loan fund for private hotels,
and upgrading infrastructure (including road, rail and air connectivity) for major tourist centres along the coastal areas.
In 1979, tourism experts and advisors, were brought in from Turkey and several new colleges were established with Turkish help between 1979 and 1981,
to teach diploma courses in hospitality and tourism management.
The tourist inflow increased to 1.8 million in 1981 and then to 5.5 million in 2000. Tourism reached a pinnacle in 2010 by reaching 14.7 million visitors.
Revenues from tourism also reached a high point at $12.5 billion in 2010.
Since then the number of tourists have significantly declined (down to 9.5 million in 2013) and revenue down to $5.9 billion due to security threats and civil unrest.

Significant security threats have had an ongoing effect on the industry over the past twenty years.[when?] Fifty-eight foreign tourists were killed in the 1997 Luxor massacre.
The industry was also affected by the September 11, 2001 attacks in the eastern United States, the 2004 Sinai bombings, April 2005 Cairo terrorist attacks, the July 23, 2005 Sharm el-Sheikh attacks, and the 2006 Dahab bombings.
Militants have typically been motivated by a combination of Qutbism and opposition to the Mubarak government, therefore attacking foreigners who are generally non-Muslims while diminishing tourist industry income was seen as serving both agendas.


Statistics
In 2000, there are about 5.5 million foreign tourist arrivals. In 2010, the number of the foreign tourist arrivals is about 14 million.
On the other hand, in 2013, Egypt is ranking the 85th position of world's best country in terms of tourism and traveling, while in 2011, it was the 75th.
In 2010, the receipts for the international tourism in Egypt is $13,633,000,000. With a great increase, Egypt raised an amount of money that was about $2,942,000,000 in 1998.


Impact of Egypt's Revolution on Tourism
The 2011 Egyptian revolution that included attacks on foreign journalists such as British journalist Natasha Smith [5] and South African Lara Logan in Cairo’s Tahrir Midan (Liberation Square), along with the series of 2012–13 Egyptian protests, have negatively affected tourism.
The new regime has worked hard to create stability and the Red Sea resorts in particular have had increasing tourist numbers.

During the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, the number of visitors plummeted by over 37% that year falling from 14 million in 2010 to 9 million by the end of 2011.
This has impacted a diverse range of businesses directly or indirectly dependent on tourism, from travel accommodation and tourist attractions to car rental and air transportation, as well as health and wellness industries.
Tour operators offering heavy discounts to encourage tourists back have been somewhat successful at the Red Sea resorts where prices remain lower compared to 2011.
In the first half of 2014 the number of tourists further declined by 25% as compared with the same period of 2013, while revenues shrank by 25% as well.

In 2013, Egypt ranked 85th as the world's best country in terms of tourism and traveling, falling ten places from its ranking of 75 in 2011.
However it regained some ground in the 2015 rankings being rated 83rd overall.


Major attractions
The celebrated tourist attractions of Egypt are the millennia-old monuments for which the Nile Valley is world famous. Principal among them are the Pyramids and Great Sphinx at Giza, the Abu Simbel temples south of Aswan and the Karnak Temple Complex and Valley of the Kings near Luxor. Cairo also boasts the Cairo Museum and the Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha and the coastal areas of Sinai Peninsula are very popular with visitors as well.

Giza, 20 km southwest of Cairo, is the site of some of the most impressive and oldest (26th century BC) ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the Great Sphinx, the Great Pyramids of Giza, a number of other large pyramids and temples, and Cairo's modern tower.
Saqqara, some 30 km south of Cairo is a vast, ancient burial ground which served as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis. It features numerous pyramids, including the world's oldest standing step pyramid, as well as a number of mastabas.
Luxor, about 500 km south of Cairo, is the site of the ancient city of Thebes and has sometimes been called "the world's greatest open air museum". It includes the ruins of the temple complexes at Karnak and Luxor, which stand within the modern city. On the opposite side of the Nile River lie the monuments, temples and tombs on the West Bank Necropolis, which include the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens.
Abu Simbel, about 850 km south of Cairo (near the Sudanese border) is an archaeological site comprising two massive rock temples originally carved out of a mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II (13th century BC). The complex was relocated in its entirety in the 1960s to avoid being submerged during the creation of Lake Nasser. They are now situated on an artificial hill made from a domed structure high above the Aswan High Dam reservoir.
Alexandria is a main summer resort, due to its beaches, ancient history and Museums, especially the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, a modern project based on reviving the ancient Library of Alexandria.
Sinai Peninsula- Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs, and biblical history. Most popular tourist destination in Sinai are Mount Sinai ("Jabal Musa") and St. Catherine's Monastery, which is considered to be the oldest working Christian monastery in the world, and the beach resorts of Sharm el-Sheikh, Dahab, Nuweiba and Taba.
Ain Sukhna, about 110 km east of Cairo has a number of beach resorts.


Pyramids
there are more than 70 pyramids along the Nile, with the three pyramids of Giza being the best-known. The Sphinx, a lion-bodied guard, stands beside pyramids in Giza.
The pyramids were built more than 4,000 years ago in the eras of Kings Cheops, Kefren and Mykerinos.
These three kings' bodies were buried within the pyramids.
The pyramid of Cheops is the largest at 145 metres in height, and is referred to as the Great Pyramid.

Saqqara Complex
The vast necropolis of Saqqara including Memphis is located 24 kilometers south of central Cairo. Memphis was founded in about 3000 BC by Menes, along with 11 other pyramids.
Memphis was the administrative capital of ancient Egypt.
Saqqara has Zoser's funerary complex, Mereruka's tomb and the Serapeum, a large limestone structure housing a collection of mummified Apis bulls in gargantuan granite coffins of various kings such as Teti.

Valley of the Kings
in Thebes: Due to theft from tombs within pyramids, 26 pharaohs of the eighteenth to twentieth Dynasties including Tutankhamun, Ramses the Great and Tuthmosis III had their tombs carved into the rock of the Valley of Kings. There are further tombs in the Valley of the Queens.

Pharaohs
5,000 years ago, the pharaonic nation was founded in Egypt, and they were a sophisticated and civilized society. This nation left a very large amount of monuments and temples. Most of the reminders of this well known nation is preserved in Egypt. These monuments draw many tourists, who like to watch and appreciate these reminders, to Egypt.

Some of the well-known artefacts of ancient pharaonic civilization are: Pyramids: Perhaps the most known pyramids are the three pyramids of Giza, but there are more than 70 pyramids along the Nile. Beside the giant three pyramids is Sphinx, a lion-bodied guard of the pyramids. The pyramids were built more than 4,000 years ago in the eras of Kings Cheops, Kefren and Mykerinos. These three kings' bodies are buried in these enormous pyramids. The biggest pyramid, Cheops', is known as the Great Pyramid because it measues 145 meters tall. Touristic places beside the pyramids are The Solar Barque Museum, The Sphinx Complex and The Sphinx Sound and Light Show.

Saqqara Complex: The vast necropolis of Saqqara including Memphis is located 24 kilometers south of central Cairo. Memphis was founded in about 3000 BC by Menes, along with 11 other pyramids. Memphis was the administrative capital of ancient Egypt. You will find Zoser's funerary complex, Mereruka's tomb, and Serapeum. Serapeum is a large limestone structure and an amazing collection of mummified Apis bulls in gargantuan granite coffins of various kings such as King Teti


Valley of the Kings in Thebes: The Valley of the Kings covers its secrets well. The grand pyramids of the earlier pharaohs were too tempting to attract stealers, so from the eighteenth to twentieth Dynasties, about 26 pharaohs built their tombs in the valley. Carving them into the eterning mountains, far from any messing hand. Famous tombs there belong to Tutankhamun, Ramses the Great and Tuthmosis III. This valley is located in Luxor.

There are other interesting tombs to see in the Valley of the Queens and nobles



Nile cruises
Nile cruises may vary considerably, but typical Nile cruises are either three, four or seven nights. The shorter tours usually operate between Luxor and Aswan, while the longer cruises travel further north to Dendera, often offering day tours overland to more remote locations.
Old Nile Cruise
The usual cruise is aboard a Nile cruiser, often referred to as a floating hotel. Indeed, the better boats have most of the accommodations of a land based hotel, including small swimming pools, hot tubs, exercise rooms, nightclubs, good restaurants, stores and even small libraries. Many of the boats have dance areas with disco or even live entertainment, and most offer a variety of nightly shows. These might include cocktail parties, Nubian shows, belly dancers and whirling dervish, plays and even dress up parties where guests don traditional apparel.
A much more adventurous style of Nile cruise, very different from the floating hotels can be arranged aboard feluccas, Egypt's traditional Nile sailboat. Most felucca trips are short trips of several hours, but multi-day felucca cruises can be arranged aboard larger vessels traveling between Aswan and Luxor. The accommodations on a felucca are primitive. Tourist sleep in the open on deck and the sailors double as cooks.
Around the middle of April, locks on the Nile river are closed due to water levels, ultimate time for a Nile cruise is between October and mid April, when the weather is fairly cool, but the locks are all open. However, most cruise boats operate all year. If the locks are closed, cruise operators will arrange boats on either side of the locks, and a transfer must be made between boats.
Pricing, as with land hotels will also have a wide range, based on both the boat and the accommodations


Transportation
Passports and visas are required of foreign visitors except natives of several Middle Eastern countries. Transit voyagers, however, that travel by ship or plane are not required to obtain visas. Travellers native to most of Africa must have proof of cholera and yellow fever vaccination

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Airports
There are nine international airports in Egypt that serve all of the county’s major cities, including Cairo International Airport and Taba International Airport.
Cairo International Airport is the main gateway to Egypt and is located about 15 miles northeast of the city in northern Egypt.
Cairo’s three terminals receive flights from major world cities including those in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. You can reach central Cairo by bus, while numerous taxis also run to the city and its hotels at a reasonable price.
Limousines are also available as a more comfortable alternative.
Located in central Egypt, Luxor International Airport is a popular facility that serves the Nile Valley and it a convenient gateway for people heading to the poplar tourist destinations of the region.
Two updated terminals serve international and domestic flights, with a number of Egyptian carriers including Air Cairo and Egypt Air operating from the airport. The airport is located close to the city centre and taxis, limos and regular buses are available for transfers into the city.


Railways
Egyptian Railways is the backbone of passenger transportation in Egypt with 800 million passenger miles annually.

Air-conditioned passenger trains usually have 1st and 2nd class service, while non-airconditioned trains will have 2nd and 3rd class. Most of the network connects the densely populated area of the Nile delta with Cairo and Alexandria as hubs.

The Alexandria-Cairo-Luxor-Aswan link is served daily in both directions by air-conditioned sleeper trains of Abela Egypt. This service is especially attractive to tourists who can spend the night on the train as it covers the stretch between Cairo and Luxor. A luxury express train also connects Cairo with Marsa Matruh towards the Libyan border
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Egyptian currency
The currency in Egypt is the Egyptian pound E£ or ج.م – can also be abbreviated as EGP and sometimes, LE or L.E. (which stands for livre égyptienne, French for "Egyptian pound").
The 1/100th unit of EGP is the Piastre.
The approximate official exchange rate for $1 USD is E£8.88 EGP as of August 2016, even though the approximate exchange rate in the widely spread black market for $1 USD is E£12.50 EGP.
The Central Bank of Egypt controls the circulation of currency.
As of May 2009, the currency notes in circulation have a denomination of EGP 200, 100, 50, 20, 5, 1 and Piastres 50, 25.
There is no limit on the amount of currency which the visitors may bring to Egypt, however, they must declare the currency and amount upon arrival and departure with bank receipts.
There may be restrictions on the amount of currency that can be taken outside of Egypt so it is best to check with your hotel or a local bank to confirm the amount, but generally it should not exceed E£5,000.


Climate
Peak tourist season in Egypt runs from mid October to May, during winter and spring. From May until October, the temperatures are fairly high, especially in Luxor and the southern parts of the country.

Egypt is one of the hottest and sunniest countries in the world. With the exception of a strip along the Mediterranean coast, Egypt has a desert climate, being entirely within the Sahara.
The Mediterranean coastal strip has an average annual rainfall of 100–200 mm. In central and southern Egypt several years may pass without any significant rain.

Winters are generally warm in the south of Egypt, but temperatures fall rather abruptly at night so that desert evenings in winter can be quite chilly. The heat of southern Egypt in summer is fierce,
and there is almost no relief from one day to another. The very low humidity, however, makes the heat more bearable.


Safety
As the 2011 uprisings took place, the national industry of tourism declined. Visitor numbers decreased by some 37% in 2011. The number of visitors was 9 million in 2011 while it was over 14 million in 2010. This has had an influence on all other areas which ranges from travel accommodation to car rental, air transportation, health and wellness and tourist attractions, with value growth rates across the board declining to double digit territory. Tourism operators introduced heavy discounts in order to drain tourists back and prices remained low at the beginning of 2012.[1] Terrorism has affected the industry in recent times. A total of 58 foreign tourists were killed in the 1997 Luxor massacre. The tourist industry sunk even lower with the September 11 attacks in the eastern United States in 2001, the 2004 Sinai bombings, April 2005 terrorist attacks in Cairo, the July 23, 2005 Sharm el-Sheikh attacks, and the 2006 Dahab bombings.

Historically, foreign tourists have been a common target of attacks dating back to the early 1990s. Militants have typically been motivated by a combination of Qutbism and opposition to the Mubarak government, and attacking foreigners including non-Muslims while hurting Egypt's tourist trade was seen as serving both goals.

The 2011 Egyptian revolution has effected tourism negatively, as have attacks on women by groups of men including British Journalist Natasha Smith and Lara Logan in Cairo’s Tahrir Square.

The U.S. Department of State warns U.S. citizens to defer travel to Egypt and U.S. citizens living in Egypt to depart at this time because of the continuing political and social unrest. On June 28, a U.S. citizen was killed during a demonstration in Alexandria. On May 9, a private U.S. citizen was attacked with a knife outside of the U.S. Embassy after being asked whether he was an American. Additionally, Westerners and U.S. citizens have occasionally been caught in the middle of clashes and demonstrations. The route and location of protests can change with little warning. You should avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings. If you become aware of any nearby protests, leave the area immediately. There is also a high threat from terrorism. Although security is tight throughout the country, especially in resort areas, there remains a high risk of attacks which could be indiscriminate, including in public places frequented by foreigners




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